The metallurgical industry has five main functions, smelting, non-ferrous metal production,
production of ferroalloys and pig iron, manufacture of pipes and steel. The steel industry is a very
important part of The petrochemical industry is part of the chemical industry.
It is characterized by using an oil
derivative (naphtha) or natural gas as basic
raw materials. However, many products called
petrochemicals, such as polyethylene, can be
obtained both from these raw materials and
from others, such as coal (in the case of
South Africa) or alcohol (Brazil).